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Guide to CO2 Capture, Sequestration, and Storage

Executive Summary 5
Introduction 7
Sequestration Origins 8
Geologic Sequestration Field Tests 9
Environmental Concerns 10
Linking Profit with Environmental Benefits 14
Economic and Policy Constraints 14
Cost of CCS 17
Co2 Capture 19
Electricity Generation 19
Capture Technologies 20
Clean Coal Technologies 22
Industrial Processes 22
Fuels Production 22
Case Studies 23
CO2 Capture Project 23
Colorado Plateau 24
Sequestration Methods 27
Forestry 27
Measuring, Monitoring and Verification of Carbon Benefits 28
Monitoring 30
Technologies 31
Mitigating Leakages 31
Responding to Leakage 32
Agricultural 33
Case Studies 35
The Noelle Kempff Climate Action Project, Bolivia 35
Senegal Prototype Pilot Project 38
Storage Options 40
Geologic Formations 40
Oil and Gas Reservoirs 40
Coal Bed Methane 41
Saline Formations 41
Ocean 42
Capacity 44
Effectiveness 44
Injection Methods 48
Local Environmental Impacts 50
Case Studies 51
Weyburn Project 51
CENS Project 52
The Valleys 52
Frio Brine Project 53
DOE Center for Research on Ocean Carbon Sequestration 53
International Field Experiment 54
CO2 Ocean Sequestration Project in Japan 54
Ocean Carbon-cycle Model Intercomparison Project 54
Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute 54
Policies and Initiatives 56
Carbon Credit Trading 56
Kyoto Protocol 57
DoE's Carbon Sequestration Program 60
Infrastructure 75
Characterization Phase (2003-2005) 76
Validation Phase (2005-2009) 78
Deployment Phase (2009-2017) 78
Program Management 79
Industry Challenges 82
Incentives to Deforest 82
Defining Terms of Carbon Trade 82
Additional Challenges of Sequestration Models 83
Multiple Benefits 84
Actual Reduction in Greenhouse Gases 84
Cheaper for the North to Trade Outside of its Borders versus Within 84
Preservation of Vital Forest Lands 84
Impact of Ecotourism 85
Linkage to Sustainable Development 86
Policy Prescriptions 89
Requirements for Participation 92
Enforcement and Compliance Measures 92
Market Mechanism provides Financial Incentives 93
Credits given to Forestry Industries Practicing Sustainable Forestry 93
Credits Given to Energy Exploration Industries that Practice Restoration and Clean Energy Projects/Conservation 93
Using Carbon Trading as a Method of Debt Relief 94
Checks and Balances 94
Policy Growth 95
Conclusion 96
Glossary 97

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