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Smart Grid Cyber Security

Executive Summary 4

Introduction to Smart Grid 6

What is the Smart Grid? 6
Who is developing the Smart Grid?
9
Technologies Involved in the Smart Grid
and What They Offer 12
Distributed Resources 12
Power Grid Management 14
Customer Power Management 16
Importance of Wireless Technology to
the Smart Grid 19
Smart Grid and Personal Information
22
Privacy Issues with the Smart Grid
25
Latest Developments 30

Benefits of a Smart Grid 32

Cyber Security in the Electric System
42
Overview 42
Building a Strategy for Smart Grid
Cyber Security 43
Security Fundamentals of the Smart
Grid 44
Looking at the Threats Facing the Smart
Grid 46
Looking at System-level Threats 47
Problem of Theft of Service 49
Privacy and Confidentiality Threats
51

Security Challenges Facing the Smart
Grid 52

Internet Protocol and Smart Grid
Security 54

Vulnerabilities Facing the Smart Grid
55
SCADA Security 55
Security of the Substation 55
Use of Public Telecom Infrastructure
56
Network Management from Remote
Nodes 57
Lack of Authentication 57
Authentication Bypass 57
Slave Meter Data Tampering 58
Slave Meter Unauthorized Disconnection
58
Insecure Protocol Implementation 58
Firmware Upgrade Vulnerabilities 59
Input Validation 59

Security of the Current Smart Grid
60
AMI Security 60
Securing the Wireless Network 60
NASPI Security 61
Considering Potential Attack Scenarios
62
Present Risk of Attack 62

What the US Government is Doing
63

Appendix 65

Glossary 71

About the Publisher 82
3
List of Figures and Tables

Figures

Figure 1: Electricity and Economic
Growth 7
Figure 2: SCE Advanced Metering
Infrastructure Communications System
involves Multiple Communication Paths
to Link the Utility to the Meters to its
Customers 20
Figure 3: Electric Generation Fuel Mix 66
Figure 4: Electric Generation from
Renewables 66
Figure 5: Security of Supply Example
with DG 69
Figure 6: A Simple Distribution Network
70
Figure 7: NOx Emissions from
Distributed-Generation Technologies
(kg/MWh) 70

Tables

Table 1: Comparison between Today's
Grid and Smart Grid 8
Table 2: Companies Participating in
IntelliGrid 10
Table 3: IntelliGrid Project Plan 11
Table 4: Distributed Resources Benefits
40
Table 5: Power Grid Management
Benefits 40
Table 6: Customer Power Management
Benefits 41
Table 7: Smart Grid Benefits Merit
Additional Legislative Action 65
Table 8: Cost & Thermal Efficiencies of
Distributed Generation Technologies
Inclusive of Grid Connection Costs &
Without Combined Heat and Power
Capability 67
Table 9: Emission Profiles of Distributed
Generation Technologies 68
Table 10: Distributed Generation
Technology Costs Inclusive of CHP
Infrastructure 69
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