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Ocean Energy Market Potential

Executive Summary 8

Analysis of the Different Types of Ocean Energy 9
Overview 9
Tidal Energy 9
Wave Energy 10
Ocean Thermal Energy 10
What is Tidal Energy? 11
What is Wave Energy? 14
What is Marine Current Energy? 17

Analysis of Tidal Power 20
Market Overview 20
Types of Tidal Power 23
A Brief Look at Tidal Stream Generators 25
Advantages of Tidal Energy 25
Disadvantages of Tidal Energy 26
Barrage Tidal Power 26
Types of Tidal Barrage Generation 29
Ebb Generation 29
Flood Generation 29
Pumping 30
Two-basin Schemes 30
Environmental Impact of Barrage Placement 31
Turbidity 32
Salinity 32
Sediment Movements 32
Fish 34
A Look at the Concept of Secondary Water Storage 34
Developments in Tidal Barrage Schemes 34
Tidal Barrage Case Studies 35
La Rance 240 MW Tidal Barrage in France 35
Annapolis 20 MW Tidal Barrage in Canada 37
Small Tidal Plants in China 37
Yalu River Tidal Barrage in China 38
Shihwa Tidal Power Plant in Korea 38
Tidal Power Plants in the United Kingdom 39
Kislogubsk 400 kW Tidal Power Plant in Russia 45
Economics of Tidal Energy 45
Other Devices for Extracting Energy from Tidal Flows 46
TidEL 46
A Look at the Derby Tidal Power Project 48
Region-Wide Analysis 49
Argentina 49
Canada 49
China 51
India 51
Mexico 51
Republic of Korea 51
United States 52

Analysis of Wave Power 53
Market Overview 53
Brief Look at the Physical Concept
behind Wave Power 54
Wave Resources 55
Modern Technology 56
Technology behind Wave Energy
Conversion 60
Oscillating Water Column 60
Mighty Whale Project 65
Buoys/Floats 66
SPERBOY Oscillating Water Column Device 69
Pelamis 70
Other Miscellaneous Projects 71
Wave Dragon Project 73
Wavegen 73
Wave Farms 75
Potential of Wave Power 77
Looking at Wave Propulsion 77
Challenges facing Wave Power 85
Commercializing Wave Power Energy 86
Synergy between the New Marine Renewable Energy Industry and the Existing Offshore Industry 87
Region-Wide Analysis 88
Australia 88
China 89
Denmark 90
India 91
Japan 93
Norway 94
Portugal 95
Sweden 96
United Kingdom 98
United States 100

Analysis of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion(OTEC) 102
Market Overview 102
History of OTEC 106
How OTEC Works 107
Closed-cycle OTEC System 109
Hybrid Cycle OTEC System 111
Air Conditioning 111
Chilled-Soil Agriculture 112
Aquaculture 112
Desalination 113
Hydrogen Production 113
Mineral Extraction 115
Political Concerns and the Exclusive Economic Zone 116
Economics of OTEC 117
Future of OTEC 119
Region-Wide Analysis 119
Cuba 120
Fiji 120
French Polynesia 122
India 122
Japan 122
Marshall Islands123
Puerto Rico123
Sri Lanka 124
Taiwan 124
United States 125

Analysis of Marine Current Energy 127
Market Overview 127
Market Drivers for Marine Current
Energy 127
Energy Yield 128
Global Marine Current Resource 128
Turbine Technology Related to Marine Current 130
Horizontal Axis Turbines 131
Vertical Axis Turbines 131
Challenges Facing the Development
Marine Current Energy 131
Seaflow Project 132
Stingray and the EB Frond 135
Experimental Marine Current Power
Plant at Uldol-mok 137
Future of Marine Current Power 137

Cost Analysis of Ocean Energy Conversion Technologies 140
Major Players 145
Oceanlinx 145
Finavera Renewables 148
Projects 148
HydroVenturi 150
Pelamis Wave Power Ltd 152
Projects 152
Ocean Power Technologies Ltd 156
Ocean Wave Energy Company 158

Appendix 161

Glossary 166

About the Publisher 189

List of Figures and Tables


Figure 1: Worldwide Distribution of Tidal
Energy Projects as per the Type of Project 12
Figure 2: Worldwide Distribution of Tidal Energy Projects by Project Type and Status 13
Figure 3: Worldwide Distribution of Wave Projects by Project Type 16
Figure 4: Worldwide Distribution of Wave Projects by Project Type and Status 17
Figure 5: Tidal Resource in the World 20
Figure 6: Present-day Tidal Power in the UK 40
Figure 7: Base Data for the Severn Barrage 42
Figure 8: Proposed Severn Barrage 42
Figure 9: TidEl 48
Figure 10: Global Wave Power Resources 54
Figure 11: Front of the Pelamis Machine Bursting through a Wave at the Agucadoura Wave Park 58
Figure 12: Wave Dragon Seen from Reflector, Prototype 1:4� 59
Figure 13: Oscillating Water Column 61
Figure 14: The Mighty Whale Project 65
Figure 15: Buoys Deployed by AquaEnergy 68
Figure 16:: PowerBuoy 69
Figure 17: SPERBOY Oscillating Water Column Device 70
Figure 18: Another View of the Pelamis 71
Figure 19: Another View of the Wave Dragon Floating Tapchan 73
Figure 20: Limpet Shoreline Energy Module 75
Figure 21: Boat with Thruster 2 Wings are Mounted Below Bow of Boat, One on Either Side, to Take Advantage of Sea Waves�
Energy 79
Figure 22: Thruster Extracting Energy of Waves: the Wing Changes Angle of Attack
with the Help of Springs 79
Figure 23: Thruster Receiving Energy of Waves: the Wing Changes Angle of Attack
with the Help of Pneumatic or 80
Figure 24: Trolling Boat "Kystfanqst" with its Two Bow-Mounted Thruster Wings Lifted
from the Water 82
Figure 25: Trolling boat "Kystfanqst" With Bow-Mounted Thrusters in Working Position
to Capture 82
Figure 26: The Orcelle 85
Figure 27: Global OTEC Resource 104
Figure 28: Closed-cycle OTEC Plant 110
Figure 29: OTEC Uses 116
Figure 30: Resource of Marine Current in the UK 130
Figure 31: Seaflow Marine Current Turbine 133
Figure 32: EB Frind and Stingray Wave Energy Devices 136
Figure 33: Comparing the Cost of Wave Power with other Renewable Energy Sources 142
Figure 34: Fossil Fuel Reserves-to-Production (R/P) Ratios at End of 2007 161
Figure 35: Global Oil Consumption per Capita in 2007 161
Figure 36: Global Energy Consumption 162
Figure 37: Proved Reserves of Oil at end of 2007 162
Figure 38: Distribution of Proved Reserves of Oil in 1987, 1997, and 2007 163
Figure 39: Global Energy Consumption Forecast (2003-2030) 165
Figure 40: Global Energy Consumption Forecast by Fuel Type (1980-2030) 165


Table 1: Wave and Tidal Stream Device Companies Developing Full-scale Prototype Stage 15
Table 2: Key Universities Conducting Research in Ocean Energy Conversion 18
Table 3: Planned Sites for Tidal Energy Projects 24
Table 4: Comparing the Existing and Proposed Tidal Schemes Globally 35
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