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Military Biofuel Applications

Executive Summary 3

What are Biofuels? 5
Introduction to Biofuels 5
Background 6
What are the Major Biofuels? 7
Biologically Produced Alcohols 7
Biologically Produced Gases 8
Biologically Produced Oils 9
Solid Biofuels 9
Utilization of Biofuels 10
Home Cooking & Heating 10
Transport 10
Direct Electricity Generation 11
Analysis of Ethanol 12
Analysis of Biodiesel 13
Biofuel Advantages and Disadvantages 14
Ethanol 16
Biodiesel 18
What the Future Holds for Biofuels 18

U.S. Military Biofuel Goals 20
Energy Policy Act of 2005 23
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 23
Recovery Act Funding for Biomass Projects 24
Recovery Act Financial Opportunities for Biomass Projects 25

Case Studies 27
Defense Energy Support Center 32
Air Transport Association of America 33
U.S Airforce 33
U.S Army 34
QinetiQ 35
Alternative Fuel Technologies 35
U.S. Marine Corps 35
Military Growth Task Force 36
Camp Lejeune 37
U.S Navy 37
Biofuel in Ships Demonstration Projects 39
Range Training Support Craft 40
U.S. Navy, Biodiesel Industries and Aerojet 41
Bullet Airship Test 41
Green Hornet 42
USDA Partnership 42
Royal Netherlands Air Force Apache Biofuel Helicopter 43

Appendix 44

Glossary 47

Abbreviations 47

Units of Measure 49

Terms 50

About the Publisher 54

List of Figures and Tables


Figure 1: Largest Producers of Ethanol 44
Figure 2: Historic Prices of Gasoline & Diesel 45
Figure 3: Historic Ethanol Prices at Sugar Mill Gate Compared with International Gasoline Prices 46


Table 1: Biofuel Cost in US$ per Liter 45

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